Register of the Records of the
SPANISH MERCHANTS ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA
Gail E. Farr
Processing and cataloguing of this collection were supported in part by a grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission.
The Spanish Merchants Association of Philadelphia (SMA) was a private, nonprofit organization which promoted commercial and economic- development activities on behalf of Spanish-speaking persons in the Philadelphia area. Founded in 1969, the association began as a self-help group for Puerto Rican and Latino business owners--and prospective owners--and went on to develop a professionally-staffed Business Development Office, conducted under contracts from the U.S. Department of Commerce from 1971-81, which became a major provisioner of technical support services to the Spanish-speaking business community in Philadelphia in those years. In addition to programs aimed at the individual entrepreneur, the Spanish Merchants Association also promoted the revitalization of the North Fifth Street "El Bloque de Oro" (Golden Block) Hispanic commercial district in the mid-1970s and other community development projects in North Philadelphia including a Section 8 housing project (Dorado Village), opened in 1983; a housing rehabilitation program sponsored by the City of Philadelphia's Office of Housing and Community Development Technical Services program (1983-86); and the redevelopment of an industrial site on North Third Street, called the Somerset Industrial Center, in 1983-86. While recovering from the last venture, which was financially disastrous, the association opened a new minority business office in the Golden Block area and operated this service for two years before going out of business in 1988.
This account provides a chronological overview of the history of the Spanish Merchants Association of Philadelphia and the various activities the association engaged in. It is followed by a guide to the organization's records in the Balch Institute library.
Establishing SMA, 1969-74: The Spanish Merchants Association was founded by officers of the Council of Spanish Speaking Organizations of Philadelphia--the major federation of Puerto Rican and Latino social and civic groups representing the city's growing Spanish-speaking population. The founders saw a need for an organization which would enable Puerto Rican and Latino business owners to obtain information and technical assistance for establishing their businesses in Philadelphia. El Concilio, or El Concilio de Organizaciones Hispanas de Filadelfia, as the parent organization was called in Spanish, helped organize the SMA and provided for initial expenses. As stated in early SMA minutes, the chief motivation behind the founding of the new group was to "help eliminate the economic drawbacks that are hampering the healthy growth" of the Hispanic population of Philadelphia which then numbered at least 50,000.
The founders envisioned a voluntary organization which would enable Spanish-speaking businessmen to overcome barriers of language and prejudice so they could participate more fully in the city's economic mainstream. A membership promotion led by the first SMA president, furniture store owner Candelario Lamboy, and six other Puerto Rican board members, centered around small dues payments which entitled members starting out in business to protection by a group credit fund guarantee. Another incentive for prospective members was that the organization offered access to technical services such as assistance with bookkeeping, tax returns, legal problems, and applications for mortgages and bank loans.
In 1971 the Spanish Merchants Association received its first federal funding to provide technical and administrative assistance: a grant from the Economic Development Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce. The SMA opened an office on Kensington Avenue near the heart of the city's Spanish-speaking neighborhood in North Philadelphia.
During these early years, the Spanish Merchants Association explored a variety of other avenues for strengthening the Hispanic business presence in Philadelphia. Members were particularly interested in cooperative food purchasing modeled after food cooperatives in Puerto Rico (Board of Directors Minutes, January 1972). The food cooperative did not materialize, but in 1973, SMA established the Spanish Merchants Company to distribute milk to Spanish-speaking grocers. As the first minority milk cooperative to act as a subdealer with its own license not subject to price controls of the Pennsylvania Milk Marketing Board, the Spanish Merchants Company enabled member merchants to purchase shares in the cooperative and to obtain dairy products at a lower price than that of the control prices, the difference from which was then paid out in quarterly dividends. An incorporated entity operated autonomously from SMA, the Spanish Merchants Company was still in business in 1984.
Business Development Office, 1972-81: With the beginning of the first federal contract, SMA found it necessary to develop a staff of paid professionals to conduct the work of the organization. Although responsibility for the governance of the association rested with the board of trustees, the organization came increasingly to rely on the guidance and leadership of an executive director.
Executive director Cesar R. Miranda (1972-73) oversaw the first federal grant. His successor, attorney and minorityrights advocate Nelson A. Diaz (1973-78), the Spanish Merchants Association secured contracts from the U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Minority Business Enterprise (OMBE) to support the Business Development Office.
Diaz sought to broaden the base of support for SMA by building alliances with non-Hispanics. Interestingly enough, when the activity of the Business Development Office was at its height, Diaz moved the office to a downtown location where it shared facilities with the Philadelphia Urban Coalition, an organization aimed toward improving the economic well-being of black Philadelphians. The association between the Spanish Merchants Association and the Philadelphia Urban Coalition appeared to have been fruitful because it broadened SMA's prospects for funding and visibility. The Coalition employed SMA's half-dozen BDO staff members under funding from OMBE's successor agency, the U.S. Minority Business Development Agency, to make the Coalition's business services center bilingual. During this time, SMA also maintained an outreach office at 2825 North Fifth Street and continued to run its own federally-contracted business service center there and at the downtown location.
In April 1981, as part of a reorganization of federal programs, the Spanish Merchants Association lost its contract with the U.S. Minority Business Development Agency when the latter established a centralized Philadelphia Business Services Center to administer agency funds in the Philadelphia area. From 1981-86, several of SMA's business development officers went to work providing minority business counseling through this umbrella organization, which was presumed to be more cost-effective from the government's standpoint than the former approach of subsidizing community-based providers.
Community Development, 1977-86: Increasingly, beginning with Nelson Diaz's executive directorship, the Spanish Merchants Association broadened its programs beyond their original focus on direct assistance to individuals and developed a dual emphasis on business development and community infrastructure. The SMA was particularly active in developing the Girard and Fifth Street "Golden Block" into a commercial district to serve Puerto Ricans and Latinos who had moved into the surrounding area.
In 1977, Nelson Diaz prepared an application for a planning grant which would enable SMA to develop major impact projects and planning strategies for the revitalization of both the commercial and residential Latino districts in Philadelphia. The study, which was funded by the U.S. Community Services Administration and the City of Philadelphia, began in May 1978. To conduct the study, SMA created an office called the SMA Community Development Corporation to explore ways to make SMA self-sufficient through the establishment and operation of specific business ventures which would be responsive not only to individual small entrepreneurs but to the needs of the community at large.
The Spanish Merchants Association subcontracted with the Philadelphia Urban Coalition to have PUC conduct and produce reports dealing with the feasibility of programs, to assess community needs, conduct surveys of prospective users of services and prospective profitability of the services, and produce proposals for implementing programs in the targeted areas. The project team was made up of professional planners, including Puerto Ricans and Latinos, who researched and produced proposals for area housing conservation, an accounting firm, a housing counseling agency, a local development company, a community center, a child care center, a health care center, a professional career training program, and a transitional employment (CETA) program.
The housing program received priority because it addressed problems created by the deterioration of an older Latino community in the Spring Garden Street area, which was being displaced by gentrification. Under the guidance of its new executive director Gualberto Medina (1980-85), SMA sought to attract persons from the Spring Garden area to the Fifth Street neighborhood by obtaining government funding to subsidize the construction of affordable housing around the Golden Block.
In 1980 the SMA formed the SMA Economic Development Corporation, Inc., in partnership with a private developer in order to apply for federal housing funds to build low and moderate income housing in and near Latino neighborhoods. The Economic Development Corporation obtained funding from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development to construct the Dorado Village, an 81-unit Section 8 multi-housing project at 7th and Lehigh, opened in 1983. Another EDC project was to obtain funds from the City of Philadelphia Office of Housing and Community Development to rehabilitate housing in the North Fifth Street neighborhood from 1983-86.
The Community Development Corporation studies provided impetus for SMA to embark on a job retention scheme to stabilize employment in the Fifth Street neighborhood. In November 1983, with loans from the Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation and the Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC), and grants from LISC and the William Penn Foundation, SMA purchased a warehouse building at Third and Somerset streets with plans to renovate the structure and rent space to light manufacturers who would provide jobs and access to job skills. The Somerset Industrial Centerclaimed at the time to be the only organized effort being conducted by any of the City of Philadelphia's designated Enterprise Zones to bring businesses to their areadid succeed in attracting tenants. But SMA ran into financial problems in renovating the heating system in the building and sold the property in 1986.
SMA from 1986-88: The organization then reverted to its original emphasis by focusing on direct client services to merchants in the immediate Golden Block area. A grant from the U.S. Minority Business Development Agency enabled SMA to conduct a Minority Business and Industry Association/Minority Chambers of Commerce project aimed at expanding membership of SMA, disseminating information about business opportunities through a procurement network and newsletter, and conducting educational programs to promote minority business development. Nathaniel ("Bud") Brodo headed the project as the last executive director of SMA from 1986-88, taking special interest in programs to improve small neighborhood retail operations. The businesses run by Puerto Ricans, Latinos, Asians, and African Americans. Hard-pressed to meet project objectives with available resources, the SMA disbanded in early 1988 at the conclusion of this project grant.
These records were donated to the Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies in 1988.
SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE
The records of the Spanish Merchants Association of Philadelphia date from 1970 to 1988. The collection contains correspondence, board minutes, financial and administrative records, applications for federal contract awards and supporting documentation, annual and other reports, newspaper clippings, project files, community surveys, planning studies, statistical information, and printed materials pertaining to SMA activities. These materials shed light on a wide range of topics of interest to students of public policy and of Puerto Rican and Latino affairs.
The SMA records are arranged in eight series. These include: Series 1, General Administrative Records (1970-88); Series 2, Spanish Merchants Company, Inc. Records (1973-84); Series 3, SMA Business Development Office Records (1970-82); Series 4, Philadelphia Business Services Center records (1981-86); Series 5, SMA Community Development Corporation Records (1977-80); Series 6, SMA Economic Development Corporation, Inc. Records (1980-87); Series 7, Somerset Industrial Center Records (1980-87); and Series 8, Minority Business and Industry Association/Chamber of Commerce Project Records (1986-88).
The arrangement reflects the project-oriented character of SMA's work. SMA administered or helped establish a variety of different projects, each with specific goals and objects, its own funding (i.e., through contract, grant, loans, or other financing arrangement), and its own personnel, operating procedures, office files, reports, and resulting proposals or research summaries and evaluations. But the organization did retain core personnel who provided continuity over time, shifting to new projects when others ended. Thus, researchers interested in a particular SMA project will find it helpful to consult records not only in the particular series of interest in Series 28 but also in the general administrative files in Series 1. For example, researchers interested in the history of the SMA Business Development Office will find material in the board of directors minutes and files of the executive director in Series 1 as well as in Series 3.
Individuals researching SMA's history from 1984-88 will find information in the papers of SMA's executive directors for those years, filed in Series 1, as well as in the project files in Series 7 and 8. Series 7, Somerset Industrial Center Records (1982-87) includes files of Louis E. Pasamanick dating from his term as site manager for the Somerset project, 1983-84; Series 1 contains correspondence and reports written by Pasamanick during the period in which he served as executive director of SMA (1984-86) as well as the director of the Somerset project. Series 8 also contains Pasamanick files: his grant application for the minority business assistance project conducted by SMA from 1986-1988. Similarly, persons interested in the latter project will want to consult the files of Nathaniel Brodo in Series 1 and Series 8. Brodo directed the minority business assistance project (1986-88) and served as executive director of SMA during those years.
Portions of this collection including personnel records and case files have been closed for research use for periods of up to fifty (50) years to protect the privacy of individuals and to conform to agency guidelines regulating access to information about clients. For further information about materials marked "Restricted" in the container list below, please consult the Balch staff archivist.
The following paragraphs describe the scope and content of the collection at the series and subseries levels.
Series 1: General Administrative Records. 1970-1988. Boxes 1-38: Subseries 1, General Information, 1971-86, consists of SMA's articles of incorporation and bylaws, historical sketches, annual reports, clippings, and oversize pieces such as printed and graphic items relating to the history and programs of the organization. Subseries 2 consists of minutes and correspondence of SMA's board of directors, 1970-87. The material in Subseries 2 is rich in material on the founding period in the early 1970s and is in Spanish. Subseries 3 includes correspondence, grant proposals, reports, and miscellaneous personal papers of SMA's executive directors, 1971-88. Subseries 4, Office Files, 1972-88, contains several types of records documenting the daily operation of the association. Among them are two boxes of correspondence and newsletters received from other Latino organizations in Philadelphia and elsewhere, 1972-86, arranged alphabetically by name of organization. There is also a cache of correspondence, minutes, and reports on programs of the Philadelphia Urban Coalition from the period in which PUC and SMA shared space in the same downtown office building, c. 1975-82. Subseries 4 includes development information, membership and mailing lists, and personnel files. Subseries 5, Financial Records, 1971-87, contains the organization's financial statements, ledgers, invoices, and files pertaining to individual accounts and disbursements.
Series 2: Spanish Merchants Company. Inc. Records. 1973-1984. Boxes 39-50: Subseries 1, General Administrative Records, 1973-1984, details the formation of the Spanish Merchants Company milk cooperative in 1973-76 and files of the cooperative's director, Alfredo Vaz, in the late 1970s. Most of the board minutes are in Spanish. Files of correspondence with the Pennsylvania Milk Marketing Board are also found in these files, as are certificates issued by the SMC to approximately thirty shareholders. The certificates are filed alphabetically by name of shareholder. Subseries 2, Financial Records, 1973-80, documents the business operations of the cooperative. Of special interest are accounts receivable billing registers and payment receipt registers which list the names of grocers who participated in the cooperative.
Series 3: Business Development Office Records. 1970-1982. Boxes 51-108: This series documents the work of the Business Development Office which SMA operated under contracts from the U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Minority Business Enterprise (OMBE), 1972-79, and OMBE's successor, the U.S. Department of Commerce, Minority Business Development Agency, from 1979-81. Documentation of virtually all aspects of federal minority business assistance programs during the 1970s, from their inception within the organization providing the service at the community level, through the negotiation of the contract with the federal agency, to the actual provision of service to clients, is found here.
Subseries 1, OMBEMBDA Contracts, General Files, 1971-81, details the relationship between SMA and its funding agencies. Of substantial interest are the approximately 200 items of correspondence between SMA officers and OMBE/MBDA officials concerning grant applications, procedures for administering grants, project evaluations, and budget reviews of contracts awarded to SMA. Included are letters from Allan A. Stephenson, Regional Director of the OMBE's Washington Regional Office, and his successor in that post, Luis G. Encinias, to SMA executive directors Cesar R. Miranda, Nelson A. Diaz, and Guillermo Salas, concerning these matters. Also included are letters of endorsement of SMA written by a variety of individuals such as U.S. Senator Hugh Scott (Pennsylvania) for use in SMA's grant applications. There is also a file of support letters written by prominent members of Philadelphia's Latino community which SMA solicited on behalf of OMBE during a proposed federal budget cutback of the agency during the Ford administration, June 1975-January 1976. Finally, the subseries contains OMBE (later, MBDA) directives to contractors regarding guidelines, reporting procedures, and BAR (Business Assistance Report) forms; printed matter issued by the agency such as directories of minority businesses, programs, conferences, and training programs, miscellaneous pamphlets and brochures.
Subseries 2: SMABDO Office Files, 1973-81, is made up of files maintained by SMA officers and BDO staff concerning management of the Business Development Office under OMBE and MBDA contracts. These files consist of correspondence files of business analysts Moises Montalvo and Emil G. Nunez, 1980-81, procedural manuals prepared by senior business analyst Anthony J. Mina, information about services provided to SMA clients, and BDO office personnel files. Of special note is the photocopy of the office Rolladex (Box 55) listing names and telephone numbers of the BDO's contacts at banks, foundations, and public agencies. Also included is documentation generated in connection with each of the individual contracts such as quarterly and project reports and audit reports. The project reports contain a variety of information such as numbers of clients served, types of services provided, narrative accounts of assistance provided to individual clients, and analysis of work accomplished toward project goals. The project reports include various appendices such as annual reports on SMA's activities overall. Those seeking general information about the organization's work for 1975-80 will find much useful material in the contract reports.
Subseries 3: Client Case Files, c. 1972-81, are closed to research use at this time. Please see the Balch staff archivist concerning these holdings.
Subseries 4: Project Files, 1972-81, contain information on projects which BDO staff researched on behalf of the SMAthat is, business projects which the SMA was investigating as prospective undertakings for the organization to pursue. The most complete of these project files concerns the food cooperative program which was called by the project name, Delaware Valley Wholesale Grocery Company, in the marketing, pricing, site search, and other studies conducted by Angel A. Candelaria, economic development specialist for the BDO, in the mid 1970s (Boxes 103-105). The project files also contain information on the BDO's housing counseling consultant program, 1981; a proposed Philadelphia/Wilmington business development office, 1981; and materials issued by the U.S. Small Business Administration, 1976-81.
Series 4: Philadelphia Business Services Center Records. 1981-1986, Box 109: This small lot of records pertains to activities of SMA Business Development Office staff who went to work for the Philadelphia Business Services Center from 1981-86, when SMA lost funding from MBDA to provide direct business assistance to clients. The Philadelphia Business Services Center was a nonprofit corporation established under a grant from the Minority Business Development Agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce, by Leevy, Redcross & Co., a certified public accounting firm, "to focus on those minority entrepreneurs who are currently in business and those within the minority population who are potential business owners." The files contain reports, descriptions of services, and brochures concerning the Business Services Center and its programs including the Philadelphia Minority Business Development Center and the Business Planning Group.
Series 5: SMA Community Development Corporation Records. 1977-1980. Boxes 110-126: Holdings include correspondence between SMA executive director Guillermo Salas and CDC project director Paul C. Ferrelli; along with research data, surveys, and reports prepared by program staff on topics under consideration as major focal points for the community development program for the large portion of Philadelphia's Latino population which was concentrated in the targeted district. The files contain planning documents and proposals on the following projects: Master Plan/Housing Commercial Industrial (area housing conservation); accounting firm; real estate, insurance and mortgage service; housing counseling agency; local development company; community center; child care center; health care center; professional career training program; and a transitional employment (CETA) program.
Of special note are the planning studies conducted by Socorro Rivera on the child care center and health care center. Rivera was interested in expanding human services In the Latino community. Her field work produced data such as lists of Spanish-speaking health care professionals in the area. She also surveyed Puerto Rican and Latino women to evaluate their views on a prospective day care center. Tabulations of survey data are found here.
This series also includes several oversize pieces depicting aspects of the plan. Among these are an artist's rendering (color, pen and ink) of North Fifth Street looking north, showing street and building improvements and an outdoor wall mural. Also included are four printed maps detailing features of the Community Development Corporation's plans.
Series 6: SMA Economic Development Corporation. Inc. Records. 1980-1987. Boxes 127-140: The materials in Series 6 detail SMA's efforts to implement findings of the Community Development Corporation studies particularly with respect to housing in the North Fifth Street district. Subseries 1, General Records, 1980-87, contains background materials concerning the creation of the EDC as an entity for receiving public and private development funds. Also included are correspondence between SMA officers and their partner in the development, New York realtor John Rosenthal; as well as reports, brochures, proposals, and funding guidelines which EDC's incorporators collected from agencies and organizations involved in similar ventures such as the Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC); the Philadelphia Community Development Project (PCDC) and the Enterprise Zone Program of the Department of Commerce, City of Philadelphia; the Philadelphia Housing Development Corporation (PHDC); and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Subseries 2 is made up primarily of legal documents and reports on the Dorado Village housing complex, 1981-85; correspondence concerning the management of the complex by the Dorado Neighborhood Improvement Company, 1985-87, reflecting concerns of tenants and staff, is also found here.
Subseries 3, Housing Rehabilitation Projects, 1981-87, is made up of files of two projects, Major Systems Rehabilitation (MSR) and Basic Systems Repair (BSR), which the EDC conducted under a contract between the City of Philadelphia and SMA for using U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Community Development Block Grant funds to rehabilitate vacant properties (MSR) and perform repairs on occupied dwellings (BSR). Correspondence between MSR/BSR project head Carlos Rodriguez and City of Philadelphia Office of Housing and Community Development officers; exchanges between Rodriguez, project architect Schlosser/Rivera/Krumholz, and building subcontractors; and materials pertaining to selection of properties and clients assisted under the plan, offer a fascinating portrait of a housing renewal program as it was experienced by the respective groups involved in the process. Information concerning cooperation between the Spanish Merchants Association and the Hispanic Federation for Social and Economic Development's Housing Initiative Program is found here. Subseries 3 includes information on the properties and clients. Portions of the client files have been restricted.
Series 7: Somerset Industrial Center Records, 1980-1987, Boxes 141-155: Series 7 details the attempt on the part of SMA to purchase a warehouse in a predominantly Latino neighborhood, rehabilitate the structure, and rent the space to small manufacturers in order to stabilize employment in the area. Subseries 1, General Business Records, 1983-84, includes mortgage closing and acquisition documents, correspondence between SMA officers and representatives of the Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation, Local Initiatives Development Authority, the William Penn Foundation, and the Philadelphia Authority for Industrial Development concerning funding of the project; financial statements; and documents pertaining to the sale of the property to Die Cut Specialty Co. in 1986.
Subseries 2 is made up of correspondence between project manager Louis E. Pasamanick and SMA officers, 1983-87, concerning site operation and maintenance; interchanges between Pasamanick, tenants, and contractors regarding building repairs, utilities, and rent invoices; and bills for repairs and supplies. Subseries 3 contains personal papers of Louis E. Pasamanick, 1983-86. Among these is correspondence concerning Pasamanick's participation in other organizations such as the American Street Corridor Business Association and the Philadelphia Mayor's Anti-Graffiti Task Force. There are also four folders of correspondence between Pasamanick and Robert Wagman (1984-85) concerning the latter's interest in industrial redevelopment schemes involving prison inmate labor. Finally, the subseries contains files of correspondence and other materials concerning Pasamanick's involvement in Republican Party organizations and his participation in various election campaigns such as the [Ronald D.] Castille for District Attorney Committee, 1985-86, the Bob Rovner Campaign for Republican Candidate for Congress (1986), and the [Jack] Ortiz for State Representative committee, October-November 1984, for which Pasamanick served as business officer.
Series 8: U.S. MBDA Minority Business and Industry/Minority Business Chambers of Commerce (MBIAIMBCC) Project Records. 1984-1988. Boxes 156-165: Subseries 1, General Files, 1984-88, contain reports, correspondence, and memoranda pertaining to the management of the project. Subseries 2, Programs, 1986-88, details the various activities which SMA conducted under the grant such as seminars, membership promotions, fundraising activities, SMA newsletter, educational programs done in connection with other organizations such as the Fifth Street Merchants Association and the Council of Spanish Speaking Organizations, and the project's efforts to gather information about procurement opportunities for neighborhood businesses. Subseries 3, Financial Records, 1986-88, details the organization's financial difficulties. Subseries 4, Client Files, 1986-87, consists of information on approximately 60 individuals who received assistance under the MBIA/MBCC project. These client files are restricted.
Aspira of Pennsylvania Records, 1969-1990. (Unprocessed).
Council of Spanish Speaking Organizations of Philadelphia (El
Concilio) Records, 1966-1990. MSS 120, Balch Institute Library.
Diaz, Nelson A., Esq. Papers. (Unprocessed).
Fifth Street Merchants Association, 1975-1987. MSS Group 118, Balch Institute Library.
Hispanic Federation for Social and Economic Development, 1973-1985. MSS 116, Balch Institute Library.
Latino Project Records, 1962-1985. MSS 117, Balch Institute Library.
Puerto Rican Week Festival Records, 1979-1987. MSS 119, Balch Institute Library.
Two extraneous groups of material came to light in late 1992 when the records donated by the Spanish Merchants Association were being processed for research use. One of these was identified as the records of the Latino Project, a publicinterest law center established by Luis Diaz, Esq., in 1976. The other consisted of the records of the Hispanic Federation for Social and Economic Development founded by Luis Diaz in 1981. Spanish Merchants Association officers confirmed that Luis Diaz had occupied office space at the SMA headquarters in the mid1980s and had records stored there. The project archivist located Luis Diaz so that an appropriate transfer of these documents could be arranged. Subsequent to the transfer of the Luis Diaz holdings to the Balch Institute by deed of gift, the records of the Latino Project and those of the Hispanic Federation were processed and catalogued under the NHPRC project grant in addition to those of the Spanish Merchants Association. Guides to the records of the Latino Project and the Hispanic Federation are available in the library.
Photographs (318 items) from the SMA records were transferred to the Balch photograph collection and comprise Photo Group 325. Five boxes of printed material was transferred to the Library. Please consult the library staff for information concerning these holdings.
The box list of the register of the records of the Spanish Merchants
Association of Philadelphia is one hundred six pages long.