Mary Elizabeth Hallock Greenewalt papers

Collection 0867

( Bulk, 1879-1950 ) 1769-1950, undated
(18.2 Linear feet ; 39 boxes, 29 volumes, 23 flat files)

Summary Information

The Historical Society of Pennsylvania
Greenewalt, Mary Elizabeth Hallock, 1871-1950.
Mary Elizabeth Hallock Greenewalt papers
Date [bulk]
Bulk, 1879-1950
Date [inclusive]
1769-1950, undated
18.2 Linear feet ; 39 boxes, 29 volumes, 23 flat files
Finding aid prepared by Mary Kirk
Language of Materials
In addition to English, the collection includes occasional materials in Arabic and French.
Mixed materials [Volume]
Mixed materials [Oversize]
Flat Files 1-23
Mixed materials [Box]
Mary Elizabeth Hallock’s arrival in Philadelphia in 1882 at the age of eleven set into motion a forty-year career as a musician, inventor, lecturer, writer and political activist. Born in Beirut, September 8, 1871 to Sara (Tabet) Hallock, descendant of an aristocratic Syrian family, and Samuel Hallock, a U.S. consul, she was educated in Beirut and Philadelphia. A gifted musician, Hallock graduated from Philadelphia’s Musical Academy in 1893, and in 1897 studied piano in Vienna with Theodore Leschetizky. In 1898 in Johnstown, New York, Hallock married Dr. Frank L. Greenewalt, thirty-two years old and a physician-in-chief at Girard College. The Greenewalts had one son, Crawford, born in 1902. Greenewalt, a pianist noted for her interpretation of Chopin, began in the early 1900s to investigate how gradated colored lighting might enhance the emotional expression of music. By 1920 Greenewalt had obtained the first of many patents covering a color organ designed to project a sequence of colored lighting arranged for specific musical programs. In combining light and color as a single performance Greenewalt believed she had created a new, fine art which she named “Nourathar,” or essence of light. Although awarded eleven patents, Greenewalt spent a number of years pursuing patent infringements, finding recourse in the courts in 1932 with a judgment in her favor. Greenewalt’s professional activities also included lecturing on music and serving as a delegate to the National Women’s Party, which was instrumental in winning women’s suffrage. After retiring from the concert and lecture stage, Greenewalt published Nourathar: The Fine Art of Light-Color Playing in 1946. She died on November 26, 1950, in Wilmington, Delaware. This collection offers many examples of Greenewalt’s creative processes. Greenewalt herself arranged a good portion of correspondence which details the development and manufacture of her color console and the legal battles surrounding her patents. A photo album also documents Greenewalt’s creation of her light color console. In addition, Greenewalt left an autobiography (in draft form), a family history, copies of patents, correspondence specific to patent filings, miscellaneous personal correspondence, blue prints and drawings, copies of concert programs, news clippings, lecture and radio broadcasts manuscripts, scrapbooks, two small volumes in Arabic, and numerous brochures and pamphlets pertaining to electrical lamps and theatre lighting. Artifacts include Greenewalt’s recording of Chopin made in 1920, a gold medal awarded in 1926, copper printing plates, and experimental, painted materials.

Preferred Citation

Cite as: Mary Elizabeth Hallock Greenwalt Papers (Collection 867), The Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

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Background note

In 1867 Samuel Hallock arrived in Syria as the U.S. consul for the Palestine Syrian region. Hallock, recently awarded a United States patent for improving electrotype, had also contracted with the American Bible Society to establish a printing press in Asia Minor. A thirty-three year old widower from New England at the time of his arrival in Syria, Hallock met Sara Tabet, the fifteen-year-old daughter of Namie and Miriam Tabet, a well-to-do family in the Levantine. They were married on October 18, 1870. Mary Elizabeth, born September 8, 1871, was followed by four more children, Arthur Tabet (1872), George Bliss (1874), Ethel Fleet (1876), and Edgar Byington (1877). After the birth of her fifth child in 1877, Sara Hallock, exhibiting signs of mental illness, was sent abroad for treatment, first to England and then to the United States, where she died in Northampton, Massachusetts in 1883 at the age of twenty-eight. Hallock, to provide for his children’s upbringing and education, consigned them to the care of his relatives and friends in the United States. Greenewalt, and later her sister Ethel, were settled in the Philadelphia area while their brothers lived with relatives in New England. Ethel later married William DuPont; the DuPont family provided introductions and occasionally financial support during Greenewalt’s career as an artist and inventor. In addition, Greenewalt’s son, Crawford, married Margaretta Lammot DuPont and also served as president of the DuPont Company from 1948 to 1962.

Before her arrival in the United States in 1882 Greenewalt’s life resembled that of other well-to-do families in Beirut. As a child surrounded by servants, Greenewalt never dressed herself. At the age of six Greenewalt was enrolled in a private school run by German Deaconess Sisters where Greenewalt learned French, the official school language, as well as German. Although a child at the time of her mother’s illness and separation, Greenewalt retained memories of piano lessons from her mother and days spent playing in the brilliant sunshine of Beirut. She also recalled slighting remarks from British wives regarding her mother’s difficulty with English customs, and occasional but violent outbursts by her father.

In Philadelphia Greenewalt lived with the Quaker Heacock family and attended Chelten, their private school. As a pupil, Greenewalt displayed an aptitude for music as well as mathematics. After completing her studies at the Chelten School in 1888, Greenewalt studied piano at the Philadelphia Musical Academy, graduating in 1893. In 1897 Greenewalt traveled to Vienna to study with Theodor Leschetizky, who was noted for his teaching method emphasizing tone production. After returning from Vienna, Greenewalt married Dr. Frank L. Greenewalt, physician-in-chief at Philadelphia’s Girard College in 1898 in Johnstown, New York. They had one son, Crawford, born in 1902.

When Greenewalt launched her career in the United States in 1898, she established herself as a skilled pianist who exemplified Leschetizky’s musical training, and in 1903 edited a book on the Leschetizky teaching method by Marie Prentner. While proving herself a serious musician in the early 1900s, Greenewalt also established herself as a public speaker, sharing her musical knowledge with audiences in Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Atlanta, and Chicago. Greenewalt’s lecture titles included: “Musical Literature, The Birthdays of Queen Music,” “Sun Time and Rag Time,” “The Music of the Future,” and “”Women in Interpretive and Creative Music.” Greenewalt also addressed musical pedagogy, speaking on “The Elocution of Playing,” and “The Music Teacher in Germany,” and lecturing on Chopin, Debussy, and Liszt. In the 1920s Greenewalt also utilized radio to reach audiences. Several handwritten manuscripts concerning lectures on light-color play demonstrated Greenewalt’s approach to the unseen audience. “Are you there? Fellow Spirits across space. Are you there Mary and Lucie and Nancy and Susie and David and John? Even though I can’t see you, I know every one of you is ‘all there.’ True Blue.” Another manuscript, dated June 3, 1927, documents a radio address in German to Lankenau Hospital.

While Greenewalt’s lectures addressed different facets of music, her research interest focused primarily on the physical basis of music’s emotional appeal. Investigating the relationship between pulse and rhythm as a means of explaining this appeal led Greenewalt to publish an article titled “Pulse and Rhythm” in the Popular Science Monthly of September 1903. In 1904 the Music Teachers’ National Association invited Greenewalt to perform and to lecture on “Pulse and Rhythm in Verse and Music” at the St. Louis Exposition. In exploring music’s emotional appeal, Greenewalt turned to investigating colored lighting as the medium capable of giving expression to the combined mind and body response to music. These studies became the basis for Greenewalt’s experiments with color lighting and the many patents developed in the creation of her color organ. A prodigious and meticulous writer, Greenewalt not only documented her work but in many cases left drafts that provide insights into her creative process.

From initial experiments in 1905 with coloring photographic film, until 1919 when Greenewalt unveiled her color organ, the Sarabet (named after her mother, Sara Tabet), Greenewalt worked toward establishing a niche for herself as an artist and inventor who had discovered a unique relationship between light and music. Greenewalt’s first major step toward this goal occurred in 1916 in a light-color demonstration before the Illuminating Engineering Society of Philadelphia at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia. For this demonstration Greenewalt employed a lighting unit which illuminated rotating rolls of painted acetate-cellulose film, her “canvas” of color timed to correspond to set pieces of music. In a handwritten essay, Greenewalt described this performance as having “established a synchronism between the half tones of light and the half tones of music, not in their organic selves but in the values they both so richly hold within them.” Despite the success of this demonstration, Greenewalt recognized the need for a more precise and controlled method of displaying color gradations.

In 1918 Greenewalt filed her first patent, “Illuminating Means,” which described a timed, sequential process for controlling color and light intensities as used in a phonograph machine. As designed by Greenewalt, lamps shining through color discs emitted gradated shades of colored light in a phonograph operated, according to Greenewalt, on “the air pump principle” used “because it offers fluid control.” Greenewalt described this first patent application, and two proposed patents, in an address to the Philadelphia Illuminating Engineering Society on April 19, 1918. In her address, Greenewalt claimed that these patents represented the creation of a new art which she titled “Light: Fine Art the Sixth.” At this time Greenewalt also proposed a universal light score which might be used to indicate light gradations in the same way musical notes served in a musical scale. Greenewalt realized these aims in a 1920 patent for “Rheostats” and a 1921 patent for “Notation for Indicating Lighting Effects.” At this time Greenewalt, working with an improved rheostat design, contracted with General Electric to manufacture a color console. She also relied on the George Cutter Works of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company to supply elements necessary for her color console. To publicize her color console, Greenewalt arranged public demonstrations for interested theatre and film house owners. In 1922 Greenewalt herself accompanied a truck driver delivering her console for a performance at the John Wanamaker store in New York.

While attempting to market her instrument, Greenewalt arranged for the manufacture of a second console for Pierre DuPont’s conservatory at Longwood, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. Before its installation the console was demonstrated at the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Calvary Episcopal Church Easter service in the Spring of 1924. In an address before the Philadelphia Illuminating Engineers Society in 1923, titled “A Light Scoring for the Episcopal Service,” Greenewalt described the console’s operation in the upcoming service, the instrument’s design, and the patents accorded this design. Greenewalt urged the engineers to support her patent claims for priority in developing a light color organ; at this time Greenewalt had begun pursuing other color organ performers for patent infringement.

Greenewalt’s achievement, which brought inquiries from as far away as Japan, also brought her into competition with others interested in exploiting light-color properties. In 1922 Thomas Wilfred performed with his color organ, The Clavilux, which projected colored light without musical accompaniment. Publicized as “Light as a fine art,” the Clavilux “made its debut at the Neighbourhood Playhouse, New York, on January 10, 1922.” That same year, Greenewalt cited Wilfred for patent infringement on her “System of Notation for Indicating Lighting Effects.” Although Greenewalt soon abandoned this suit against Wilfred, she pursued electrical product manufacturers, and theatre owners who contracted with these manufacturers, for patent violations.

Greenewalt also continued over the next decade to improve her light-color system, receiving eleven patents by 1934. Working as an individual outside of academic institutions or corporations, however, Greenewalt relied on engineers to assist with calculations for her rheostat and for preparing blueprints for manufacturing her light player and light keyboard. In her writings, Greenewalt often questioned the close ties between her patent attorneys who held retainers with the electrical companies manufacturing her consoles. As a result, the charge that powerful business and political interests prevented Greenewalt from receiving recognition and compensation for her work appears repeatedly throughout Greenewalt’s public addresses or writings. One such text from Greenewalt’s photo album states:

“It will be hard for future ages to realize how completely at this time the electric aggregations held control over practically every door of opportunity. My patent attorneys held a retainer fee from the General Electric. . . . It is unbelievable how next to impossible it was for the individual to run through the hindrances everywhere placed in his way.”

In Greenewalt’s first major suit, Greenewalt v. Stanley Company of America, 1920, Greenewalt’s own trial demonstrations, such as the 1911 Wanamaker’s Egyptian Hall performance, were cited as proof that her invention was in public use and therefore not eligible for patent protection. It was not until 1932 that Greenewalt obtained a legal victory when the courts recognized her unique contribution to the field of color-lighting. This success, however, failed to reimburse her for her financial and intellectual investments, and Greenewalt spent the next several years in an unsuccessful suit against the Musical Arts Association which operated Severance Hall in Cleveland, Ohio.

In addition to turning to the courts to protect her patent claims, Greenewalt also looked to politics to curtail the power of the electrical companies. As a member of the National Women’s Party, Greenewalt encouraged women to support Franklin D. Roosevelt and his administration’s attempts to control the power of utilities.

While Greenewalt’s color organ failed to provide financial reimbursement, publicity surrounding the color organ generated honorary awards and recognitions. As early as 1903 Thomas Eakins painted her portrait, now in the Roland P. Murdock Collection of the Wichita Museum of Art. In 1926 Greenewalt received a gold medal for her color organ in Philadelphia’s Sesqui-centennial exposition. And in 1934 the Museum of Science and Industry, in Chicago, installed Greenewalt’s color organ in their “Century of Progress” exhibit.

Greenewalt’s vision of her “fine art” expressed itself not only in her patents and commercial ventures, but also in writings expounding on light and sound and their relation to human psychology. For Greenewalt, her “fine art” offered an aesthetic and spiritual experience; she compared the light-player’s experience to “sit[ting] within a huge all-color jewel while this every colored jewel spoke the music of one’s soul… .” In her manuscript Nourathar: The Fine Art of Light-Color Playing Greenewalt laid out the aesthetic and physical principles guiding her in creating the color organ. She coined the word  Nourathar from Arabic roots meaning Nour (light) and Athar (essence of). This collection holds an unpublished 1940 manuscript of  Nourathar.

In this manuscript Greenewalt also addressed the rationale underlying color choices for musical settings. According to Greenewalt, colors possessed their “very own characteristics, idiosyncracies” [sic]. And Greenewalt speculated: “Are we driven by a might outside us? Or do we drive? I am no metaphysician. Experience furnished a valuable thread to logic. I know that in this huge labor I was driven by some weird force or push.” Greenewalt, acknowledging that the eye does not perceive every shade of color, nevertheless claimed the eye as a link to the spiritual, stating: “The eye then as the gauge; the spectral is the nearest in fineness to the spiritual essence man seeks to express through the arts. It is the most perfect. Its apportionment unto color stupendous in its portent.” In addition to finding spiritual and aesthetic links to her work, Greenewalt also suggested that her art “Nourathar,” served as a therapeutic tool for the mentally ill. The magazine, The New Delawarean, November 1939, shows the color organ installed in the Delaware State Hospital patients’ chapel.

By the late 1930s Greenewalt ceased pursuing patent infringements and demands for reimbursement for use of her light-color process. She continued to use speaking engagements and letter writing to promote her art and to remonstrate against those companies which she believed had denied her credit and reimbursement for her accomplishments. In 1942, Greenewalt’s husband Frank Lindsay died at the age of seventy-six; Greenewalt died on November 26, 1950, in Wilmington, Delaware.

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Scope and Content

The Mary Elizabeth Hallock Greenewalt Papers offer an impressive array of materials touching not only on the creative processes of an artist-inventor but also on an individual’s experience with the United States patent system. Intertwined with the story of Greenewalt’s invention of the color organ is the record of her battle for legal recognition of her right to financial gain on her patents. In addition to retaining a record of patent infringement court proceedings, Greenewalt also summarized her experiences in an unpublished 1934 manuscript, A to Z, A Compilation of Patent Letters with Letters Patent. Here Greenewalt recounted how manufacturers and theatre owners conspired to utilize her light control process without acknowledging her patents and thereby avoiding patent royalties.

Greenewalt’s papers also include an unpublished Autobiography containing memories of her early life in Syria, her father’s career, her mother’s mental illness, and Greenewalt’s emigration to the United States at age eleven. Greenewalt’s autobiographical notes contain many drafts of this work, which indicate the evolution of her thought as she worked to develop the color organ and show her appreciation for the color organ’s scientific and aesthetic properties. Other writings include Greenewalt’s manuscripts of lectures and addresses, including her radio addresses, and some family correspondence. An extensive photograph album contains color organ photos and Greenewalt’s commentary on the progress of her invention.

Other materials include a 1920 sound recording of Chopin’s works performed by Greenewalt for Columbia Records, pastel drawings and painted materials from Greenewalt’s early experiments with color and light, and many blue prints and tissue sketches of her color organ designs. Of particular interest is Greenewalt’s photo album documenting her early color-light experiments. The collection also contains several scrapbooks documenting Greenewalt’s professional life. A scrapbook devoted to her father, Samuel Hallock, contains personal correspondence pertaining to Hallock’s career and marriage, and Samuel Hallock’s electrotype patent award. There are many lighting manufacturers’ catalogs and brochures to which Greenewalt often added her commentary, reviews of performances by other light-color artists, and articles on color theory. Personal items include Greenewalt’s bridal souvenir book and the gold medal and diploma she received at the 1926 Sesqui-Centennial in Philadelphia.

The papers have been divided into seven series. Series I contains files arranged alphabetically by Greenewalt and documents Greenewalt’s efforts to create and market her invention and protect it from patent infringement. Folder titles reference correspondence with manufacturers, engineers, and theatre owners involved with the development and demonstration of Greenewalt’s color organ. Other files reference correspondence with attorneys, law suit filings, and other artists also promoting color organs. Also included are Greenewalt’s accounts of the color organ design and manufacture, and reports of color organ demonstrations. DuPont correspondence files and a file on Tabet (maternal) genealogy offer family-related references in Series I.

Series II focuses solely on Greenewalt’s color organ, offering writings and sketches concerning the color organ, as well as representative sample materials used for the organ. This series also contains Greenewalt’s 1940 unpublished manuscript, The Fine Art of Nourathar.

Series III documents Greenewalt’s legal activities and is divided into two sections, Patents and Lawsuits. The Patent files include correspondence surrounding the patent preparations as well as copies of the original patents. The Lawsuit section contains trial transcripts and correspondence concerning Greenewalt’s infringement suits. This series also contains Greenewalt’s 1934 unpublished manuscript, A to Z, A Compilation of Patent Letters with Letters Patent, which describes her legal difficulties.

Series IV includes an unpublished Autobiography in handwritten and typed form, autobiographical materials describing Greenewalt’s accomplishments, copies of her addresses and lectures, and news clippings about her activities. Also included are a Genealogy Notes and Correspondence file concerning the Hallock and Tabet families, a Family Correspondence and Clippings file, and a Miscellaneous Writings file offering what may be short stories by Greenewalt. There are also several booklets concerning Greenewalt or the Hallock family.

Series V includes printed materials about lighting manufacturing and stage lighting uses, and press clippings about James G. Blaine (1830-1893), former U.S. congressman and secretary of state.

Series VI contains Greenewalt’s photograph album recording her work and a collection of family photographs.

Series VII contains a sound recording (reformatted from phonograph to CD), printing blocks, pastel drawings, painted experimental materials, several books in French and Arabic, and Greenewalt’s awards. Included also are scrapbooks of news clippings describing Greenewalt’s early concert tours as well as her first public demonstrations of using color with music. A scrapbook devoted to Greenewalt’s parents contains letters written by her mother, letters of introduction written for her father before his appointment as U.S. consul in Syria, and the original patent awarded to Samuel Hallock for his electrotype improvements. Flat files contain blueprint and tissue drawings of Greenewalt’s color organ.

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Overview of Arrangement

Series I. General Files, 1883-1935, undated, Boxes 1-11, Flat Files 1-7

Series II. Color Organ, 1903-1943, undated, Boxes 12-13, 39, Flat Files 8-9

Series III. Legal, 1920-1936, undated

a. Patents, 1920-1934, undated, Boxes 14-17, 36, Flat File 10

b. Lawsuits, 1920-1936, undated, Boxes 18-22, 36, Flat File 11

Series IV. Writings, 1920-1950, undated, Boxes 23-25, 37, 38, Volumes 12, 18-19

Series V. Printed Materials, 1916-1935, undated, Boxes 25-27, Flat Files 12-13

Series VI. Photographs, circa 1870-1933, undated, Boxes 28-29, Volumes 4, 20, Flat File 14

Series VII. Artifacts, Scrapbooks, Paintings, Drawing, Blue Prints, 1769-1933, Boxes 30-35, Volumes 1-3, 5-17, 21-29, Flat Files 15-23

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

 The Historical Society of Pennsylvania 2008

1300 Locust Street
Philadelphia, PA, 19107

Revision Description

 Transferred from MS Word to Archivists' Toolkit and minimal corrections made by Dana Dorman, October 2010.




Gift of Mary Elizabeth Hallock Greenewalt, 1939.

Processing Note

Series I, Boxes 1-11 reflect Greenewalt’s filing arrangement. Many documents required copying; where possible, some of the originals of these documents have been placed in folders at back of each box. Due to the large number of fragile materials, there remain a number of documents that would benefit from copying.

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Related Materials

Related Materials at Other Institutions

Eakins, Thomas. Mary Elizabeth Hallock Greenewalt. Portrait, 1903. Roland P. Murdock Collection, Wichita Museum of Art.

Mary Elizabeth Hallock Greenewalt Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Light-Color Play Console (Color Organ) at Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, Illinois (1934).

Mary Halleck [sic] Greenewalt, Papers, 1930s-1940s. Delaware Historical Society.

Related Materials at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania

Greenewalt, M. E. H. Pulse in verbal rhythm. Philadelphia, 1905. (Call number WxG* .21 v.2)

Greenewalt, M. E. H. Time eternal: lecture delivered under the auspices of the Public Libraries of Philadelphia. Reprinted from the  Metaphysical magazine, 1906. (Call number WxG* .21 v.2)

Separation Report

Four 5” x 3” nitrate negatives in Box 35 should be put in cold storage.

The Federal Reporter, Vol. 39 (2d)-No. 1, May 26, 1930, pp. 1-296. Copy made of pp. 102-104, Greenewalt v. Stanley Co. of America. The book is in very poor condition, not salvageable.

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • American Bible Society.
  • E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company.
  • Eastman Kodak Company.
  • General Electric Company.
  • Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company.

Personal Name(s)

  • Greenewalt, Crawford H., 1902-1993.
  • Hallock, Homan, 1803-1894.
  • Heacock, Annie, 1838-1932.
  • Wilfred, Thomas, 1889-1968.


  • Color--Therapeutic use.
  • Concert tours.
  • Music and color.
  • Musical Arts Association (Cleveland, Ohio).
  • Musical inventions and patents.
  • Musical meter and rhythm.
  • Organ (Musical instrument).
  • Patent infringement.
  • Patent suits.
  • Stage lighting.
  • Theremin.
  • Women inventors.
  • Women pianists.

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Greenewalt, Mary Elizabeth Hallock. Nourathar: The Fine Art of Light-Color Playing. Unpublished: 1940.

Greenewalt, Mary Elizabeth Hallock. Nourathar: The Fine Art of Light-Color Playing. Philadelphia: Westbrook Publishing Company, 1946.

Heacock, Annie. Reminiscences. Privately published, 1926.

Bentacourt, Michael. “Mary Hallock-Greenewalt’s ‘Abstract Films.’” Accessed September 26, 2007.

Luckiesh, Matthew. Color and Its Applications. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1915. Accessed November 9, 2007.

Peacock, K. “Instruments to Perform Color Music: Two Centuries of Technological Experimentation,” Leonardo 21, no. 4 (1988): 397-406.

United States Patent and Trademark Office.

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Collection Inventory

 1. General Files 1883-1935, undated   ; 11 boxes, 7 flat files

Scope and Contents

These materials, arranged alphabetically by Mary Elizabeth Hallock Greenewalt, represent Greenewalt’s vast research efforts on behalf of her light-color player and demonstrate her involvement with all stages of its design and manufacture. Many folder titles represent the names of individuals, corporations, academic institutions, theatre operators, or events associated with the color organ’s development. Of particular interest are files for the General Electric Company and the George Cutter Works of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. In addition to documenting the color organ’s development, Greenewalt also sought to ensure her place in posterity by requesting that encyclopedia and compendium publishers, in the United States and Europe, cite her name and accomplishments in their references to “colour-music.” Other titles references law firms, patent filings, and suits claiming patent infringements. Also included in this series are press clippings, program notes, and a Tabet (maternal) genealogy.

Box Folder

Absolute Contractor Co. 1923-1927 

1 1

Aeolian Company 1919-1924 

1 2

American Telephone and Telegraph 1939 

1 3

Articles cited 1897-circa 1930 

1 4

"Arts and Decoration" article 1921 

1 5

Bellevue Stratford Disclosure 1916 

1 6

Biebel-Westinghouse Patent Solicitor and Van Deventer 1923-1924 

1 7

Biebel-Westinghouse Patent Solicitor 1923 

1 8

Biebel-Westinghouse Patent Solicitor and Van Deventer 1923 

1 9

Bok Philadelphia Award 1921-1930 

1 10

Broadcasting 1927 

1 11

Calvary Church, Pittsburgh: Light Player Demonstration 1924 

1 12

Cole, Robert correspondence 1923 

1 13

College/university correspondence 1919-1934 

1 14

Colleges/schools correspondence 1920-1935 

1 15

Commercial Engineering Laboratories 1922-1923 

2 1

Commercial Engineering Laboratories, Mr. Allcutt 1922-1924 

2 2

Commercial Engineering Laboratories 1923, undated 

2 3

Cooper Hewitt mercury vapor lamp 1917-1920 

2 4

Corning Glass Works 1922-1924 

2 5

Cue sheets-early light scores 1923-1930, undated 

2 6

Cue sheets-first practice of the art 1883-1928, undated 

2 7

Cutler Hammer Co. 1922-1923, undated 

2 8-9

Drexel Institute 1918-1921 

2 10

Driver-Harris Company 1919-1929 

2 11

Duo Music Club 1926-1934, undated 

2 12

E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co./Arlington Works 1917-1934 

2 13

duPont, Coleman 1923-1926 

2 14

duPont, Pierre S. 1918-1934 

2 15-16

Originals from Box 2 1923-1933 

2 17

Early light play mention 1928-1929, undated 

3 1

Eastman Kodak Co. 1916-1926 

3 2

Eastman Kodak color filters 1918 

3 3

Eastman Kodak color filters-Welsbach Company, Department of Commerce 1918-1927 

3 4

Electric companies 1925-1934 

3 5

Encyclopedias 1930-1933, undated 

3 6-7

Encyclopedias-Investigations Physical Properties of Light, Color, Rhythm 1918-1933, undated 

3 8-9

First light color play instrument ever made (constructed to MHG specifications by J.E. Reid Instrument Co.) 1919 

3 10

Large sketch removed from "First light color play instrument ever made" folder (Box 3, Folder 10) circa 1919 

Flat File 1
Box Folder

First performance-light play console, Wildwood 1919, 1932, undated 

3 11

Fowler and Smith (rep. Howson & Howson in Washington) 1921-1923 

3 12

Fox theatres and Fox film corporation 1924-1928 

3 13

Fox theatre switchboard work chart removed from "Fox theatres and Fox film corporation" folder (Box 3, Folder 13) undated 

Flat File 2
Box Folder

Franklin Institute 1917-1935, undated 

3 14

Originals Box 3 1917-1935 

3 15

General Electric Company 1916-1929, undated 

4 1-2

Geo. Cutter Works of the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. 1920-1922, undated 

4 3-4

Green, Harry G. (inventors reps.) 1930, 1932, undated 

4 5

Mary Hallock Greenewalt v. Musical Arts Assoc. 1923-1924, undated 

4 6

Greenewalt v. Musical Arts Assoc. (Ohio) 1934-1935 

4 7

Greenewalt patent 1,731,772 (instrument for light/color play) 1924-1928 

4 8

Hallock, Robert 1918-1926, undated 

4 9

History of development of light/color intensity play as a fine art by MHG undated 

4 10

Illuminating Engineering Society 1918-1926 

4 11

Japan 1920-1921 

4 12

John Wanamaker stores (N.Y.) 1922 

4 13

Johns Manville 1924-1928 

4 14

Judges and courts 1933-1935, undated 

4 15

Keith, B.F. 1916-1917, undated 

4 16

Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Co. 1933 

4 17

Originals 1916, 1920, undated 

4 18

Laird & Company (Wilmington, Del.) 1934, undated 

5 1

Libraries 1921-1934 

5 2

Licenses 1925-1929, undated 

5 3

Light/color instrument undated 

Flat File 3
Box Folder

Light and music phonograph 1919 

5 4

Lighting appliances: application for patent 1,820,899 1924-1931, undated 

5 5-6

Large sketch and blueprint removed from "Lighting appliances: application for patent 1,820,899" folder (Box 5, folders 5-6) 1927 

Flat File 4
Box Folder

Magazines 1918-1934 

5 7

Mahaffy, William and Henry 1931-1933 

5 8

Major (later Frank Adams) 1923, 1929 

5 9

Manufacture at E. Pittsburgh 1921-1935 

5 10

Masek, James C. 1919-1930, undated 

5 11

Blueprint removed from "Masek, James C." folder (Box 5, Folder 11) undated 

Flat File 5
Box Folder

Mastbaum theatre 1929, 1935, undated 

5 12

Mercury switch-date of priority 1920-1924 

5 13

Minneapolis-Honeywell Reg. Co. (formerly AbsoluteContractor Corp.) 1933-1934 

5 14

Motion Picture Prod. & Dist. Of America 1925, 1933 

5 15

National Pneumatic Co. 1932-1933 

5 16

National Woman's Party 1917-1936 

5 17

N.Y. Edison Co. 1921-1927 

5 18

Miscellaneous 1920-1933 

5 19

Originals, Box 5 1919-1931 

5 20

Miscellaneous 1921-1935, undated 

6 1-2

Weber artist water color chart removed from "Miscellaneous" folder (Box 6, folders 1-2) undated 

Flat File 6
Box Folder

Motion picture interests 1920-1928, undated 

6 3

Museum of Science & Industry (Chicago) 1923-1934, undated 

6 4

Music stands (before and after arrival of light-color play) 1928, undated 

6 5

"Notes" 1934, undated 

6 6-7

Overbrook theatre 1928 

6 8

Patent information 1912-1920 

6 9

Patent negotiations 1919-1923 

6 10

Patents in suit 1920-1929, undated 

6 11

Patent 1,385,944 1919-1934, undated 

6 12

Patent 1,654,873 1920-1935, undated 

6 13-16

Patent 1,714,504 1923-1928, undated 

6 17

Patent 1,793,284 1935, undated 

6 18

Blueprint and attached printed materials removed from "Patent 1,654,873" folder (Box 6, folders 13-16) undated 

Flat File 7
Box Folder

Pathé news demonstration 1921, 1924 

6 19

Personal Stationery circa 1923 

7 1

Philadelphia Electric 1918-1934 

7 2

Pittsburgh Malleable Iron Company 1925 

7 3

Prabar, Renee, Design for Light Play Console 1922 

7 4

Precision Tool and Instrument Company 1920-1922 

7 5

Preliminary Preparation of Brief for Suit vs Patent Infringement 1936, undated 

7 6

Press Clippings 1912-1935, undated 

7 7

Princess Theatre, New York 1922-1928, undated 

7 8

Prindle, Edwin J. 1923-1932, undated 

7 9

Prindle, Edwin J., Patent Correspondence 1923-1932 

7 10

Programs (Church, Theatre, Department Stores, Auditorium) and Demonstrations 1896-1920, undated 

7 11

Programs (Church, Theatre, Department Stores, Auditorium) and Demonstrations 1921-1929, undated 

36 1

Promotional Materials 1904, undated 

36 2

Popular Science Monthly 1919-1921 

7 12

Public Ledger of Philadelphia 1916-1931 

7 13

Publicity 1920-1929, undated 

7 14-15

Publicity Negotiations (Dropped, Westinghouse) 1920-1923 

7 16

Publishers 1934, undated 

7 17

Radio Corporation of America 1929-1933 

7 18

Radium Luminous Material 1918-1919 

7 19

Remington, J. Percy 1921, 1925, undated 

7 20

Report on Instrument for Light-Color Play 1928 

7 21

Rheostats (Patent 1,357,773) 1912-1930, undated 

7 22

Rheostats, 1,357,773 1923, 1932, undated 

7 23

Rothaptel (Roxy) 1921-1927 

7 24-25

Russian Symphony Orchestra 1915 

7 26

Scale of least visible increments, Charles E. Rauda 1919, 1927, undated 

8 1

Sears-Roebuck 1933, undated 

8 2

Schairer, O.S. (Head of Patent Dept., Westinghouse, partner with Van Deventer & Alcott, vice president of RCA) 1923-1933 

8 3

Serial No. 793,839, Method and Means for Associating Light and Music 1924-1925 

8 4

Sesqui-centennial exposition 1925-1926, undated 

8 5-6

Severance Hall 1914-1935, undated 

8 7-9

Severance Hall: bill of particulars and proofs 1934-1935 

8 10

Severance Hall: conduct of case undated 

8 11

Severance Hall console (printed descriptions) 1931-1933, undated 

8 12

Severance Hall court papers 1932-1935, undated 

8 13-14

Severance Hall: experimental tryout 1930-1935, undated 

8 15

Severance Hall: interrogation, stipulations, definitions, quotations 1934, undated 

8 16

Severance Hall proofs 1925-1935, undated 

8 17

Severance Hall: witnesses in prior suit 1929-1930, undated 

8 18

Severance Hall: letters from Newton D. Baker, Charles F. Thwing, S. R. McCandless 1931-1933, undated 

8 19

Severance Hall: scientific & other points on light and material 1924-1935, undated 

8 20

Sheet music 1928, undated 

9 1

Webster's international dictionary 1932, undated 

9 2

Shipman, Frederic (manager for series of concerts in Canada and West) 1914-1915, undated 

9 3

Slavic rhapsody (and other music) colorized 1928, undated 

9 4

Slough and Canfield 1932-1935 

9 5-6

Stanley Company now Warner Brothers 1919-1929, undated 

9 7

Steinway and Sons 1917, 1919 

9 8

Stotesbury 1919-1923, undated 

9 9

Stowkowski 1918-1931 

9 10

Strand Theatre 1922-1925, undated 

9 11

Tabet genealogy (Maternal) undated 

9 12

Theatre 1934, undated 

9 13

Three cornered reflector 1932, undated 

9 14

Transom, Frederick 1924-1925, undated 

9 15

U.S. Dept. of Justice 1927-1931, undated 

9 16

United Gas Improvement Co. 1917-1927 

9 17

Universal Stage Lighting Co. (Kliegl Bros.) 1922-1935, undated 

9 18-19

Vauclain, Samuel (president Baldwin Locomotive, on board of Westinghouse) 1919-1934 

9 20

Ward Leonard Electric Co. 1929 

9 21

Wertsner & Sons: silver screen background for light/play reflection 1921-1931 

9 22

Originals, Box 9 1928, 1932, undated 

9 23

Westinghouse 1921-1923, undated 

10 1-2

Westinghouse: light and music phonograph 1918-1922 

10 3

Westinghouse litigation 1932-1934, undated 

10 4

Westinghouse letters: Severance Hall Ellipdomeria 1920-1933, undated 

10 5

Westinghouse: McNary, White, Smith, Bellerjian 1919-1926 

10 6

White, Thomas U. 1933-1935 

10 7

Wilfred, Thomas 1922-1923, undated 

10 8-9

Williams, Talcott (first director, Columbia School of Journalism) 1907-1934, undated 

10 10

Wobensmith 1934 

10 11

Zelov, Victor has one of my instruments in his shop 1927, undated 

10 12

Magazines 1922-1925, undated 

11 1

Columbia Graphophone Company 1917-1921 

11 2

Method and Means 1930 

11 3

General Electric Litigation 1923-1934 

11 4

A Nomenclature to Underly the Use of Light as a Fine Art undated 

11 5

Manuscript of Light 1918-1921 

11 6

Extra Copies of Letters, Autobiography 1885-1907 

11 7

Return to Table of Contents »

 2. Color Organ 1903-1943, undated   ; 3 boxes, 2 flat files

Scope and Contents

Box 12 serves as the heart of this series in that it contains Greenewalt’s sketches, calculations, and notes for the rheostat and the slider which produced the gradated color operations and formed the basis of her early patent applications. Of particular interest are five files of “Notes on Color Light Play” containing drawings and commentary which offer a history of the color organ’s conception and development and refute others’ claims to similar inventions. This box also contains an unedited 1940 typescript of The Fine Art of Nourathar. In addition, a folder titled “Miscellaneous Correspondence and Legal Papers” contains the copy of a January 12, 1941, letter to the publishers, Messrs. Simon and Shuster, regarding  Walt Disney’s Fantasia by Deems Taylor (1940). In this letter Greenewalt claims to hold priority in creating painted films. Box 14 of this series contains additional writings, correspondence, and sketches concerning the color organ’s design. Also included are notes on choosing a name for the new art, a copy of a light score for Beethoven’s “Moonlight Sonata” for use with the Sarabet (Greenewalt’s name for the color-organ) and a teaching manual for the color organ entitled “Text Book for Light Color Play: Instruction.” Flat files in this series contain color organ sketches and blueprints.

Box Folder

Autograph Collection, The Historical Society of Pennsylvania 1932-1933 

12 1

Miscellaneous Correspondence and Legal Papers 1937, 1943, undated 

12 2

Notes, Sketches, Material Samples for Light Color Player undated 

12 3

Notes, Sketches, Material Samples for Light Color Player undated 

Flat File 8
Box Folder

"The Fine Art of Nourathar" 1940 

12 4

"Nourathar" 1926-1942, undated 

12 5

"Nourathar" - An Account of the Color Organ 1937-1942, undated 

12 6

Drawings and Sketches, A Fine New Art 1919-1920, undated 

12 7

Notes on Light Color Play - 1 1903-1935, undated 

12 8

Notes on Light Color Play - 2 1915-1919, undated 

12 9

Notes on Light Color Play - 3 1921, undated 

12 10

Notes on Light Color Play - 4 1923-1924, undated 

12 11

Notes on Light Color Play - 5 1919, 1923, undated 

12 12

Patent Materials - 1 1919-1923, undated 

12 13

Patent Materials - 2 1920-1924, undated 

12 14

"Development of Ellipdomeria" drawing and blueprint 1921 

Flat File 9
Box Folder

Originals, Color Organ Box undated 

12 15

Patterns for Light Color Player undated 

12 16

Instructions for "B1 Type Keys" 1923, undated 

12 17

B1 Type Keys undated 

Box Folder

Light Control, Rheostat Designs, Lamp Designs, Color Sequencing 1918, 1920, 1928, undated 

13 1

Sarabet Light Player, Design, Color Scoring, Instructions for Playing 1919-1921 

13 2

Major Light Controls, Sketches and Notes 1923 

13 3

Correspondence with Mr. Randa, Specifications for Rheostat for Light Player 1919 

13 4

Correspondence on Color Lamp Assembly 1920-1925 

13 5

Light and Rhythm Color Scale, Stanley Theatre, April 6, 1928 1928 

13 6

Light Control, Rheostat Designs, Lamp Designs, Color Sequencing, Originals 1918, 1920, undated 

13 7

Sarabet Light Player, Design, Color Scoring, Instructions for Playing, Originals 1919-1921 

13 8

Major Light Controls, Sketches and Notes, Originals 1923 

13 9

Originals, Correspondence with Mr. Randa, Specifications for Rheostat for Light Player 1919 

13 10

Correspondence on Color Lamp Assembly, Originals 1920-1925 

13 11

Return to Table of Contents »

 3. Legal 1920-1936, undated 

 a. Patents 1920-1934, undated   ; 9 boxes, 1 flat file

Scope and Contents

This section offers correspondence surrounding Greenewalt’s patent filings as well as copies of the original patents.

Box Folder

Patent 1,345,168, Illuminating Means and Notes on Similar Inventions 1918, undated 

14 1

Patent No. 1,357,773, Improvement in Rheostat 1920 

14 2

Patent No. 1,385,944, Notation for Indicating Lighting Effects 1921 

36 3

Patent No. 1,481,132, Improvement in Methods of and Means for Associating Light and Music 1924 

14 3

Patent No. 16,825, Improvement in Methods of and Means for Associating Light and Music 1927 

14 4

Patent No. 16,825 Certification, Improvement in Methods of and Means for Associating Light and Music 1927 

14 5

Patent No. 1,654,873, Means for Controlling Light 1928 

36 4

Patent No. 1,714,504, Improvement in Color Systems for Light and Color Players 1929 

14 6

Patent No. 1,731,772, Improvement in Instruments for Light and Color Play 1929 

14 7

Patent No. 1,731,772 Certification, Improvement in Instruments for Light and Color Play 1929 

14 8

Patent No. 1,945,635, Improvement in Light Color Instruments 1934 

14 9

Patent No. 1,945,635 Certification, Improvement in Light Color Instruments 1934 

14 10

Serial No. 165,621 Systems in Illumination (Patent No. 1,949,101) 1927-1933 

15 1

Patent No. 1,949,101, Systems in Illumination (Serial No. 165,621) 1934 

36 5

Serial No. 676,201 Improvement in Light Regulator and Intensity Indicators 1923-1928 

15 2

Serial No. 159,609 Improvement in Motor-Actuated Switches 1927-1931 

15 3

Patent No. 1,854,547, Motor-Actuated Switches (Serial No. 159,609) 1932 

36 6

Serial No. 164,597 Light-Color Instrument 1927-1933 

15 4

Serial No. 753,911 Mercury Switches and Mercury Switch Systems 1921-1931 

15 5

Serial No. 709,283 Current Translating Mechanisms 1924-1931 

15 6-7

Patent No. 1,793,284, Current Translating Mechanisms (Serial No. 709,283) 1931 

36 7

Serial No. 179,697 Improvement in Signaling Means 1927-1931 

15 8

Serial No. 705,568 Lighting Appliances 1924-1931 

15 9

Patent No. 1,820,899, Lighting Appliances (Serial No. 705,568) 1931 

36 8

Originals, Serial No. 753,911 Mercury Switches and Mercury Switch Systems 1921-1931 

15 10

Greenewalt Patents 1920-1934 

36 9

Original Patent Application Envelopes 1923-1933 

15 11

Patent Applications, Receipts 1922-1927 

16 1

Patent Applications, Light & Color Play Improvements 1924-1930 

16 2

Light-Scale Shorthand Design & Notes 1920 

16 3

Writings Supporting Patent Claims undated 

16 4

Patent Materials, Colored Arc undated 

16 5

Patent Materials, Colored Strips undated 

16 6

Patent Materials, Color Paper Disks undated 

16 7

Originals, Box 16 undated 

16 8

Greenewalt v. Stanley Company of America, Volume 1, Three Briefs 1930 

16 9

Patents Cited Against Greenewalt, 1,820,899 undated 

17 1

Patents Cited Against Greenewalt, 1,945,635 undated 

17 2

Patents Cited Against Greenewalt, 1,731,772 undated 

17 3

Patents Cited Against Greenewalt, 1,793,284 undated 

17 4

Patents Cited Against Greenewalt, 1,357,773 undated 

17 5

Patents Cited Against Greenewalt, 1,714,504 undated 

17 6

Methods for Controlling Light, Color Sketches, Graphs, Musical and Color Notes and Drawings 1928, undated 

17 7

Methods for Controlling Light, Color Sketches, Graphs, Musical and Color Notes and Drawings circa 1928 

Flat File 10
Box Folder

Patent Applications, Light Control 1923-1935, undated 

17 8

Patents on Color Lighting Fountains 1934, undated 

17 9

Congressional Reports, Trademarks, Copyright 1927, 1935 

17 10

Originals, Patent Applications, Light Control 1925, 1935, undated 

17 11

 b. Lawsuits 1920-1936, undated   ; 5 boxes, 1 flat file

Scope and Contents

A good portion of boxes 18-22 contain a record of Greenewalt’s court filings, trial exhibits and testimony. Included in this record of Greenewalt’s legal battles are typed drafts in Box 19 of an unpublished 1934 manuscript titled: A to Z compilation of Patent Letters with Letters Patent depicting the Ways of the Large Capital Aggregations in which the United States Patent Office Proposes, Big Business Structure Disposes. Folder One contains a handwritten list of chapters. The letters touch on personal details such as Greenewalt’s family background, early investigations of pulse and rhythm, efforts to manufacture and market the color organ, and subsequent patent infringement suits. Some letters contain specific allegations of infringement, naming theatre owners, specific businesses, e.g. Cutler Hammer Company, whom Greenewalt claims reinvented its switches according to her designs These letters also provide references to other artists working with light and color during the 1920s and 1930s.

Box Folder

Federal Reporter, (Vol. 39 (2nd)-No. 1), May 26, 1930, "Greenewalt v. Stanley Co. of America, No. 684, pp. 102-104 1930 

18 1

Transcript of Record, Mary Hallock Greenewalt v. Stanley Company of America, Volume II, Exhibit Record 1930 

18 2

Mary Hallock Greenewalt v. Musical Arts Society, "Conclusion Answer to Defendant's Brief" 1936 

18 3

Mary Hallock Greenewalt v. Musical Arts Society, Draft of "Conclusion answer to Defendant's Brief" 1936 

18 4

Mary Hallock Greenewalt v. Musical Arts Society, Proofs 1936 

Flat File 11
Box Folder

Mary Hallock Greenewalt v. Musical Arts Society, Transcript of Testimony, pages 1-356 1935 

18 5-8

Mary Hallock Greenewalt v. Musical Arts Society, Transcript of Testimony, pages 1-356 1935 

36 10

Light Color Play Notes, Hoffmann Machinery Corporation, v. Pantex Pressing Company 1929 

18 9

A to Z, A Compilation of Patent Letters with Letters Patent, First Draft 1934 

19 1-6

A to Z, A Compilation of Patent Letters with Letters Patent, Second Draft 1934 

19 7-16

Court Case, Various Patent Specification Pamphlets circa 1930, undated 

20 1-2

Greenewalt v. Stanley 1932, undated 

20 3

Syria Improvement Association and the Clavilux 1923-1924 

20 4

Court Case, Affidavits 1920-1928 

20 5

Greenewalt v. Musical Arts Society, Notes 1929, undated 

20 6

Greenwalt v. Musical Arts Society, Slough and Canfield, Attorneys 1935 

20 7

Court Case, "Patents in Suit" undated 

20 8

Greenewalt v. Stanley, Arguments, Personal Notes 1929 

20 9

Greenwalt v. Stanley, Exhibits circa 1930, undated 

20 10

Other Dimmers, Citations, Exhibits. Electrical World, "Electricity at the New York Hippodrome" undated 

20 11

Court Case, Various Patent Specification Pamphlets undated 

20 12

Court Case, "Developments in the Electrical Industry During 1932" 1932 

20 13

Court Case, Stage Lighting, Print Material 1919, 1926, undated 

20 14

Exhibits, Photostatic Copies, Color Organ Designs undated 

20 15

Evidence 1929 

20 16

Defendant's Exhibits undated 

20 17

Defendant's Exhibits, copy from 1915 Scientific America, "The Art of Mobile Color" 1931, undated 

20 18

Writings Concerning Musical Arts Suit, Equity No. 4976 1923-1936 

21 1

Writings Concerning Musical Arts Suit, Equity No. 4976, Originals 1923-1936 

21 2

Color Organ Manufacturing Costs, Invoices and Checks 1926-1933 

21 3

Color Organ Manufacturing Costs, Invoices and Checks, Originals 1926-1933 

21 4

Greenewalt v. Westinghouse, Notes and Drafts circa 1934 

21 5

Greenewalt v. Westinghouse, Notes and Drafts Originals circa 1934 

21 6

Copy of Proofs, Plaintiff's Brief Greenewalt v. Musical Arts Association, Equity No. 4976 1936 

21 7

Greenewalt v. Musical Arts Association, Draft Brief for Plaintiff 1936 

21 8

Duplicates Box 21 

21 9

Copies from Binder, "Mary Hallock Greenewalt, Stanley Company of America In Equity No. 684 Trial at Wilmington Delaware from 30th September 1929 Pages 383 to 684" 1920-1930 

22 1

Originals, from Binder, "Mary Hallock Greenewalt, Stanley Company of America In Equity No. 684 Trial at Wilmington Delaware from 30th September 1929 Pages 383 to 684" 1920-1930 

22 2

Greenewalt v. Stanley Company, Deposition of Samuel L. Rothafel, Defendant 1929 

22 3

Greenewalt v. Stanley Company, Brief for Plaintiff 1929 

22 4

Personal Notecards Regarding Court Cases undated 

36 11

Personal Notes Regarding Patents and Reissues 1935, undated 

36 12

Return to Table of Contents »

 4. Writings 1920-1950, undated   ; 5 boxes, 3 volumes

Scope and Contents

These materials contain Greenewalt’s unpublished autobiography in handwritten and typed format. Greenewalt’s autobiography encompasses memories of her early life in Beirut, relations between her parents, her mother’s mental illness, and the children’s departure for care in the United States. Also included are early family letters, such as those written by her mother from a sanitarium in England, and later, letters from her father when he worked supervising shipping for the DuPont Company. The autobiography also described Greenewalt’s life in the United States, and her career as an inventor and artist. Included are copies of letters by her son Crawford (age six) sent while Greenewalt toured. The autobiography also offers a detailed portrait of her father, his career as a consul, a printer, a member of the Masons, and his years as an employee of the DuPont organization. In addition, other writings in this series offer drafts and final copy of writings and press releases concerning Greenewalt’s color organ.

Of particular interest in the Writing Series are Greenewalt’s addresses to the Illuminating Engineering Society of Philadelphia. The addresses, given over a span of several years, provide insight into the inspiration for the color organ as well as a time-line highlighting the organ’s developmental stages. In an address of April 19, 1918, titled “Light” Fine Art the Sixth,” Greenewalt cited innovations in painting by the artist Corot which encouraged her to investigate light and color as a means of enriching musical expression. Greenewalt also referenced reports of synaesthetes, people who experience cross-sensory perceptions such as those who see letters or numbers in different colors. Subsequent addresses by Greenewalt to the Illuminating Engineering Society include that of February 20, 1920 titled, “A Light Scale Keyboard and Rheostat,” which discussed the design underlying her timed, sequential process for controlling color and light intensities; a 1923 address titled “A Light Scoring for the Episcopal Service,” discussed the color-console’s design and the patents covering the instrument; and Greenewalt’s 1926 lecture, “The Light-Color Player,” discussing the console’s modifications which offered increased lighting capacity for large auditoriums.

Other writings in this series offer insights into Greenewalt’s personal views and her interest in psychic phenomena. This series also includes one folder each of family and general correspondence.


Autobiography, Typewritten Copy of Handwritten Draft undated 


Autobiography, First Rought Draft, Handwritten undated 

Box Folder

Autobiography, First Rough Draft, Handwritten (copy) undated 

23 1

Notes, Programs, Clippings on Events 1896-1944, undated 

23 2

Manuscript and Drafts, Addresses to Philadelphia Illuminating Engineering Society 1916-1926 

23 3

Miscellaneous Clippings on Color Music, Popular Science Interests 1912, 1935-1941 

23 4

Political Addresses, Personal Views, Psychic Interests 1919-1935, undated 

23 5

Prepared Press Copy, Developing Color Organ circa 1920-circa 1936 

23 6

Notebook on Accomplishments circa 1930-circa 1932, undated 

23 7

Correspondence, Writings on Democratic Party 1935-1936, undated 

23 8

Donation of Papers 1939-1944 

23 9

Originals, Box 23 1896-1944, undated 

23 10

Lectures on Pulse and Rhythm 1903, undated 

24 1

Lectures on Music on 8.5" x 5.5" Paper circa 1903-1911, undated 

24 2

Lectures on Listening to and Teaching Music circa 1903-circa 1915, undated 

24 3

Addresses, Press Copy Drafts, Light Color Player 1918-1925, undated 

24 4-5

Lectures to Musical Clubs, Address to 1932 Patent Exposition circa 1920-1932 

24 6

Originals, Lectures, Addresses 1903-1931 

24 7

Originals, Press Copy Drafts on Light Color Player circa 1918-1925, undated 

24 8

Radio Broadcasts 1922-1923 

25 1

Genealogy Notes and Correspondence, Hallock and Tabet 1906-1944, undated 

25 2

Family Correspondence, Clippings 1885-1906 

25 3

Family Correspondence, Clippings 1907-1910 

37 1

Family Correspondence, Clippings 1915-1927 

37 2-3

Family Correspondence, Clippings 1930-1936, 1943 

37 4-5

Family Correspondence, Clippings undated 

37 6

Hard Bound Diary 1926-1932, undated 

Box Folder

Passport 1922-1928 

25 4

Hard Bound Diary, Loose Clippings, Personal Correspondence 1926-1932, undated 

25 5

General Correspondence 1879-1904 

25 6

General Correspondence 1905-1910 

37 7-9

General Correspondence, Library Acknowledgement for "Time Eternal" 1910 

37 10

General Correspondence 1911-1944, undated 

38 1-13

The Sesqui-Centennial International Exposition, June 1-December 1, 1926 1926 

25 7

Girard College, "Steel and Garnet" 1935 

25 8

Miscellaneous Writings undated 

25 9

Benjamin Homan Hallock and The New Arabic Type & Notes on American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions 1929, 1935, undated 

25 10

Reminiscences by Annie Heacock 1926 

25 11

Golden Bow by Benjamin Musser 1934 

25 12

Miscellaneous News Clippings 1888-1934, undated 

25 13

Miscellaneous News Clippings, English and Arabic 1939-1942, undated 

38 14

Envelopes 1903-1906, 1928-1943, undated 

25 14

Return to Table of Contents »

 5. Printed Material 1916-1935, undated   ; 2 boxes, 2 flat files

Scope and Contents

The majority of booklets and articles in this series refer to electrical manufacturers’ stage lighting products and their use in specific theatres; a few booklets offer accounts of lighting exhibitions such as that in Barcelona, Spain in 1929. Two articles concerning the history of the color organ are represented by an 1893 pamphlet by Bainbridge Bishop titled “ A Souvenir of the Color Organ” and a 1912 article, “The Romance of Colour-Music,” by Sarah A. Tooley. Other materials reflect Greenewalt’s interest in musical innovation and education, represented by a pamphlet describing the Theramin, an electrical-musical instrument offered by the Aeolian Company, and a booklet concerning the “Visuloa,” a teaching piano with a dual or “dictating” keyboard. Included also in this series is a copy of the Theatre Guild Magazine, July 1930, containing articles on Thomas Wilfred and his Clavilux and an article, “Camera!,” which cites work by Francis Bruguiere who created film narratives using illuminated paper shapes. Many of the booklets and articles contain Greenewalt’s handwritten commentary. In addition, this series contains the press clippings representing the numerous articles collected by Greenewalt concerning James G. Blaine (1830-1893), former U.S. congressman and secretary of state.

Box Folder

Leaflets, Pamphlets, Brochures, Lighting and Lighting Displays 1922-1930, undated 

25 15

Chicago Television & Research Laboratories Inc., "A Brief Survey of the Present Status of Television in the United States" 1933 

25 16

Cultural Events 1904-1935 

26 1

"Clavilux Color Organ," Theatre Guild Magazine 1930 

26 2

Visuola Piano Dictating Keyboard 1927 

26 3

Theremin, Leon: "Inventor of the Victor Theremin" (Copy) 1929, undated 

26 4

Painting with Light, Westinghouse Company 1929 

26 5

"This is Du Pont," E.I. Du Pont De Nemours & Company 1949 

26 6

Mastbaum Theatre 1929, undated 

26 7

"The Color Organ," Theatre Arts Magazine 1922 

26 8

The Stanley Theatre 1927-1928 

26 9

"On Color Theories and Chromatic Sensations," by Christine Ladd Franklin 1916 

26 10

Cutler Hammer Manufacturing Company 1919, 1926 

26 11

Trumbull Electric Manufacturing Company 1927, 1929 

26 12

"Pennsylvania in Music," Educational Monographs 1926 

26 13

School Music Materials 1931 

26 14

Ward Leonard Electric Company 1923, 1927, 1928 

26 15

Bulldog Mutual Electric and Machine Company 1928-1929 

26 16

Major Equipment Company 1928-1929, undated 

27 1

Edison Lighting undated 

27 2

Kliegl Bros Universal Electric Stage Lighting Co., Inc. 1928, undated 

27 3

"Colors in Relation to Business," Trade Winds 1927 

27 4

“The Colored Floodlighting of the International Exposition at Barcelona, Spain” 1929 

27 5

Chicago Cinema Equipment Company 1926, 1928, undated 

27 6

The Lumitone Corporation of America 1929 

27 7

Sears, Roebuck and Company 1933 

27 8

Electrical Manufacturers and Suppliers 1924, 1927, 1928 

27 9

Display Stage Lighting Co., Catalog 1927 

27 10

Reeves Variable Speed Transmisssions, Catalog 1931 

27 11

"The Use of Color in Fifth Avenue Hospital," Dutch Boy Quarterly 1923 

27 12

News and Press Clippings, Death of James G. Blaine, January 27, 1893 1893 

27 13

Sound Recording (reformatted to CD), Preservation Master & Copy 1905 

27 14

Picture Backing of Horse Shoe Framed Photos undated 

27 15

Skate Shoe Spring undated 

27 16

Color and Its Applications, Luckiesh, M[atthew] 1915 


Colour-Music The Art of Light. Klein, Adrian Bernard 1926 


Miscellaneous 1920-1933, undated 

Flat Files 12-13

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 6. Photographs circa 1870-1933, undated   ; 2 boxes, 2 volumes, 1 flat file

Scope and Contents

A photograph album prepared by Greenewalt houses photos, sketches, and commentary on the development of her color organ and her subsequent efforts to sue for patent infringements. In addition, the album contains several family photos and copies of childhood notes written by the Greenewalts’ son, Crawford. Also included in this series, and separate from the album, are Greenewalt and Hallock family photographs, photos of Greenewalt’s early light player, and several photos related to early patent applications.


Greenewalt and Hallock Families, Color Organ, Miscellaneous Photographs circa 1870-circa 1930, undated 

Box Folder

Black and White Photo, Lighted Fountain undated 

29 1

Photo, Theatre Installation, Equipment for Light Color Play 1925 

29 2

Three Photos, Crawford Hallock Greenewalt and Margaretta du Pont Greenewalt and Daughter, Nancy 1929 

29 3

Four Photos, Frank Lindsay Greenewalt undated 

29 4

Photo, Mary Hallock Greenewalt 1910 

29 5

Wedding Photo, Margaretta du Pont Greenewalt undated 

29 6

Two Photos, Neighborhood Playhouse Production, “A Pagan Poem,” Press Clipping, Correspondence, Musical Scores 1931-1932 

29 7

Four Photographs of Early Light-Color Play Console, from Scrapbook, “Who’s Who and Other Reference Works” 1919-1922 

29 8

Two photos in horse shoe frames undated 


Photos, Clippings, Writings Pasted into Red, Wire Bound Book 1920-1933, undated 


Photo, National Convention, National Woman’s Party, Washington, D.C. 1921 

Flat File 14

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 7. Artifacts, Scrapbooks, Paintings, Drawing, Blueprints 1769-1933, undated   ; 6 boxes, 24 volumes, 9 flat files

Scope and Contents

This series offers materials reflecting Greenewalt’s early attempts to incorporate color and light in her performances. Included are pastels on cardboard, some with musical notations, painting on woven material, and a tube of Kodak film. Paper graphs and color charts indicate markings Greenewalt used to work out a color notation system. Several scrapbooks that document Greenewalt’s career also contain letters and materials about her parents, Samuel Hallock and Sara Tabet Hallock. Blue prints and tissue drawings depict the interior and exterior of Greenewalt’s color console. Other items include Greenewalt’s Bridal Souvenir booklet, the Sesqui-Centennial diploma and gold medal awarded in 1926, books printed in Arabic and French, and Greenewalt’s sound recording of works by Chopin, created in 1920, which has been reformatted from phonograph disk to CD.

Box Folder

Scrapbook: Clippings, “Earliest Press Notices of Piano Recitals” 1891-1898 

30 1

Scrapbook: Clippings, “Earliest Press Notices of Piano Recitals” (Originals) 1891-1898 

30 2

Scrapbook: “Press Clippings of Mary Hallock Greenewalt’s Concerts, Pulse and Rhythm Research and Light Color Play as Fine Art the Sixth” 1895, 1903-1923, 1932, undated 

30 3

Scrapbook: “Mary Hallock Greenewalt and Light Color Play,” Copies of Published Articles, News Clippings 1899-1927, 1934, undated 

30 4

Scrapbook: “Mary Hallock Greenewalt and Light Color Play,” Published Articles, Press Releases, Program Notes 1899-1927, 1934, undated 

30 5

Scrapbook: “Mary Hallock Greenewalt, See the Who’s Who and Other Reference Works," Clippings, Miscellaneous Correspondence 1931, 1933, undated 

30 6

Scrapbook: “Mary Hallock Greenewalt, See the Who’s Who and Other Reference Works," Articles, Clippings, Programs, Miscellaneous Correspondence, Ephemera 1895-1932, undated 

30 7-8

Scrapbook: “Samuel Hallock Facts of Importance to the First Printing Press in Beyrouth, Syria,” Sara Hallock Correspondence 1870, undated 

30 9

Scrapbook: “Samuel Hallock Facts of Importance to the First Printing Press in Beyrouth, Syria,” Correspondence, Hallock Genealogy 1836-1886, 1932, undated 

30 10

Scrapbook: “Samuel Hallock Facts of Importance to the First Printing Press in Beyrouth, Syria,” Articles, News Clippings, Arabic Ephemera 1836-1903, 1931-1932 

30 11

Diploma, Sesqui-Centennial International Convention, Philadelphia 1926 

Flat File 15

Tube that contained Sesqui-Centennial Diploma 1926 

Box Folder

Concert program with Biographical Data and Picture, Handwritten Musical Score 1907-1908, undated 

31 1

Schematic Diagram of Motor Control undated 

31 2

Scrapbook, “See the Who’s Who and Other Reference Works Two copies, “Light Score for the First Movement Moonlight Sonata,” one copy with Small Daily Diary 1919, undated 

31 3

Record Holder for Original Recording with note by Mary Elizabeth Hallock Greenewalt 1905 

31 4

Two Articles: “A Souvenir of the Color Organ,” by Banbridge Bishop and “The Romance of Colour-Music,” Sara A. Tooley 1893, 1912 

31 5

Poster board illustrating patent 1,945,635, Titled: “M.H. Greenewalt” “Light Color Instrument” Filed Jan. 29, 1927 1934 

31 6

“Chicago’s Century of Progress, 1833-1933” 1933 

31 7

Theremin, Leon: “Inventor of the Victor Theremin” (Originals) 1929, undated 

31 8

Four Photostatic Negatives “Original drawings on reduced scale, Beau’s complete Specifications. April, 11, 1902. No. 8479” 1902 

31 9

Pedal Mechanism for Rheostat, Wiring Diagram, Light Control, Motor and Hinges, Base, Partial Photostat of Blueprint 12-A-214 (Part of Sarabet Light Player, 1919-1921 1919-1920, 1930, undated 

31 10

Various blueprints and schematics (FRAGILE!—inventories available in Appendix) 1919-circa 1930, undated 

Flat Files 16-18

Miscellaneous drawings on spectrums, scales, arcs, etc. (inventory available in Appendix) undated 

Flat File 19

Paper/pencil sketches of console interior and exterior undated 

Flat File 20

Miscellaneous drawings on tissue undated 

Flat Files 21-22
Box Folder

Letter on Birch Bark, Lock of Hair, Frank L. Greenewalt, M.D. Receipt 1894, undated 

31 11

Musical Courier 1912 

31 12

The New Delawarean, “A House in the Valley” undated 

31 13

The New Delawarean, “A New Fine Art Arrives” 1939 

31 14

Scrapbook: “Mary Hallock Greenewalt and Light Color Play,” Etude Articles 1899-1905, undated 

31 15

Design and Notes for Color Tints, for Debussy Composition, “And the moon descends on the temple which was” 1906 

31 16

Scrapbook: “Who’s Who and other Reference Works,” Publications of “Pulse and Rhythm,” and “Pulse in Verbal Rhythm” 1903, 1905 

31 17

Scrapbook: “Who’s Who and other Reference Works,” Poster, “Third International Patent Exposition,” Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1932 

31 18

Scrapbook: “Samuel Hallock,” Patent No. 63,512, “Improved Surface Conductor for Electrotyping” 1867 

31 19

Folder: “Text Book for Light Color Play Instruction” 1920 

32 1

Design, Notes for Color Tints, Published Light Score for Debussy and Beethoven Compositions 1906, 1919, undated 

32 2

Notes for “Text Book or Instruction Method” 1920, undated 

32 3

“Method of Instruction in the use of a light player table,” Lesson I 1920 

32 4

Notes on and Examples of Color Symbolisms for Scoring Music 1920 

32 5

“Methods of Playing the Sabaret” 1920 

32 6

Photostats, Lamp and Switch Diagrams; Printed Notes: “Suggested Paragraph to Follow Reference in the Specification to a Light Mechanism” 1920, undated 

32 7

Notes on Conducting with Light 1920 

32 8

Notes and Sketches for Color History and Symbolisms 1920 

32 9

“Text Book for Light Color Play Instruction” Originals 1920 

32 10

Painting, Black background with color rays, note: “1,793,284” undated 

33 1

Lithograph, “Hallock” 1912 

33 2

Pastel, Stage Scene, 20” x 28” undated 

33 3

Pastel, Stage Scene, 20” x 28” undated 

33 4

Pastel, Stage Scene, 20” x 28” undated 

33 5

Negatives (Nitrate) 1921 


Blueprint – reflector undated 

Flat File 23

Printing Blocks (1 lg. 2 sm.) Piano and Playing Hands undated 


Printing Blocks (1 lg. 2 sm.) Silhouettes undated 


Souvenir Album (Cards, cartoons, poems) 1880-1887, undated 


Alfred de Musset, “ Contes et Nouvelles” 1894 


Arabic book undated 


Arabic book (Mary Hallock in pencil on inside, back cover) undated 


Nouvelle Methode Facile Et Curieuse, Pour Connoitre Le Pouls Par La Musique 1769 


Wallet Sized Account Book, dried flowers 1910 


Bridal Souvenir. Hard bound, gold leaved pages. Writing on front cover: “Certificate of the marriage of Miss Mary E. Hallock to Dr. Frank Lindsay Greenewalt 1898 


Hawthorne, Julian, The Golden Fleece 1896 


Sesqui-Centennial Gold Medal (Eagle) 1926 


Film Year Book, Ninth Edition, 1927. Kann, Maurice, ed. New York, Los Angeles: John W. Alicoate Publisher 1927 


Hard bound Book of Music, “Symphonies de Beethoven, Arrangée par W. Mever, Vol. 1 undated 


Hard bound book of music, “Property of Mary Hallock, Chelten School, Wyncote, Penna.,” Sketches, Brochures, Dried Flowers undated 


Two medals, Musical Prizes, from Scrapbook, “Mary Hallock Greenewalt, See the Who’s Who and Other Reference Works” 1895, undated 


Mary Hallock Greenewalt v. Stanley Company of America, Trial at Wilmington, Delaware 1929 


Binders: “Light Color Play Notes, Mary Hallock Greenewalt” 1929, undated 


Three Small Pastels on Cardboard with Suggested Musical Accompaniment undated 


Colored Kodak Film and Kodak Tube undated 


Two Rolled, Colored Materials undated 


Five Acetate or Cellulose Rolls, used for Demonstration at Bellevue-Stratford, Philadelphia; Paper Chart of Color Symbols with Note by Greenewalt on Two Index Cards 1916, undated 


"Album of very old and quaintly old music" circa 1850-circa 1880 


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Appendix: Inventory for Flat File 16 


 1. [Detail Interior Console] undated   2 prints, one torn in half D-7B Fragile

17” x 21”

 2. Lamp Assembly 1924   D-7B Fragile; Duplicate of No. 14

24” x 20”

 3. Direction Indicator US Naval Station; # 50849/PO 12508-77 April 25, 1919   D7-A (torn in half)

13” x 12”

 4. Front View Rheostat; #24-2 December 22, 1922   15-B-Crumbling at Edges

19” x 26”

 5. Reflector, Details and Text undated   Crumbling badly D-7A; In separate folder

17” x 21”

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Appendix: Inventory for Flat File 17 

 1. Lease Arrangement for Color Control Screen; # Y-769-1009 July 15, 1921   Some edges crumbling

 2. Sector Reflector circa 1924 

 3. Lamp June 28, 1924   3 copies

 4. Sketch for Case   Faded


 5. Light Player Rheostat Base; # 24-4 January 1, 1923   Some edges crumbling

24” x 20”

 6. Connections for Organ, Sesqui-Centennial Exposition 1926   Good

16” x 24”

 7. Switch Support; # 24-11 September 1, 1923   Good

26” x 20”

 8. Light Player, Diagram of Internal Connections; # 24-26 December 13, 1923   Some discoloring & crumbling edges

 9. Light Player, Diagram of Connections; # 24-6 February 17, 1923   Good


 10. Musical Arts Association, Severance Hall, Cleveland, Control Board; # 13-B-717 1924 


Some tearing

14” x 20”

 11. Lift Size Reflector circa 1924   Some fading at edges

30” x 20”

 12. Lamp Assembly February 8, 1924   Splitting, crumbling

24” x 20”

 13. Life Size Reflector   Fading, & may be duplicate of #12

20" x 30"

 14. Strand Theatre January 14, 1925   Good

21” x 18”

 15. Console, Exterior   Very faded

15.5" x 10.5"

 16. Light Organ Console   Good

16” x 16”

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Appendix: Inventory for Flat File 18 


 17. (Graphs)   Fading

34” x 22”

 18. General Arrangement, Electro-magnetic Induction Long Distance Controlling Devise for Changing Color in front of Unit; # P-101 December 28, 1922   Some ripping

37” x 24”

 19. Musical Arts Association of Cleveland, Severance Hall – Stage Switchboard Console Wiring Diagram; # 8-A-510 circa 1924   Very faded

38” x 14”

 20. Thermionic Control of Theatre Lighting, Organ Console Type, Severance Hall, Cleveland, Ohio; # 9-A-418 circa 1924   Some ripping, fading

38” x 14”

 21. Thermionic Control of Theatre Lighting, Organ Console Type Scene Selector Details; # 12-A-313 circa 1930   Good

36” x 24”

 22. Thermionic Control of Theatre Lighting, Organ Console Type, Severance Hall, Cleveland, Ohio, Details; # 12-A-206 circa 1930   Faded


 23. Electric Lighting for Garden of E.T. Stotesbury, Esq., Chestnut Hill   Ripped in center

46” x 20”

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Appendix: Inventory for Flat File 19 


Rough Suggestion of Scale on Outside of Light Player Table: Rheostatt [sic] to Project as Shown or represented by Pointer   Paper with color scale and commentary

30” x 7.5”

[untitled]   Paper, Crumbling around edges Fig. 23 and Fig. 24 Light Control Diagrams with penciled notes

15” x 10”

____ Light “Scale Shorthand Marks used in conjunction with increase and decrease marks.”   Stiff paper, very dirty and beginning to crumble. Contains graph of arcs assigned to indicating light changes (Starligh Arc, Moonlight Arc, etc)

12” x 15”

No Title, No comments   Stiff paper, very dirty and beginning to crumble. Contains graph of arcs

14” x 14”

Rainy-Day Spectrum An imitation of the solar spectrum made from the Bradley Educational Colored Papers   Cardboard, dirty at edges. Color spectrum pieces of paper

16” x 4”

[untitled]   4 pages, paper with musical scores pasted on for Color Representations in the Score. Penciled notes. Score represents hymns and Braham’s Requiem

14” x 10”

[untitled]   Graph Paper, split in center, with numerical notations

16” x 20”

[untitled]   Colored block, orange

roughly 2.5” x 3.5”

[untitled]   Clear plastic

4” x 10”

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